Before you start looking for that dream home, you need to know how much you're able to borrow in order to fund it. That way, you can search accordingly, but how much you can borrow depends on these four things:
But really, the question should be: "How much of a mortgage can you afford?" Although the lender (and mortgage broker if you use one) is ultimately responsible for checking whether you can afford it, making sure you can easily manage the repayments you're taking on will give you valuable peace of mind.
You should be able to comfortably afford the mortgage when you take it out so that unforeseen events (such as interest rate rises or redundancy) don't put your home in jeopardy later on.
Sometimes your feelings on how much you can afford can be at odds with a lender's, so make sure you know what a lender looks for to avoid the frustration of not getting the mortgage you need.
Forgive this aside, but at this point it's worth mentioning that value of an independent mortgage broker. Because brokers work closely with a number of different lenders, they know the ins and outs of the different lending criteria each mortgage provider has. This has a distinct advantage over doing it yourself as it can save you time, as well as money if a mortgage lender later declines to give you the mortgage you want.
Loan-to-value, or LTV, means how much the mortgage is in relation to the value of the property. So if you have a £50,000 deposit for a £200,000 property, the mortgage you need would be £150,000 – 75% of the property's worth, or 75% loan-to-value.
Mortgage lenders will specify an upper LTV limit for each of their mortgage products. This does not mean that you will necessarily be able to borrow this amount – that will depend on your credit score, your income and your outgoings.
For more information about LTV read our loan-to-value guide.
Your credit score has a big part to play in how much you can borrow. In the most extreme cases a low credit score could prevent a mortgage lender even considering you, or, more likely, a low score could mean that the lender uses a lower multiple of your income to decide how much you can borrow.
Income is crucial to determining how much mortgage you can have. Traditionally, mortgage lenders applied a multiple of your income to decide how much you can borrow. So if you earn £30,000 per year and the lender will lend 4 times this, they may be able to lend £120,000. (Remember that each lender will have different criteria and will offer different income multiples, so always do your research.)
But many households have two incomes, so some lenders offer a choice:
Many lenders now only use income multiples as an overall maximum that they will lend, but now will conduct a detailed affordability assessment to decide on how much they will lend. This is something that has become particularly strict following the new mortgage regulations introduced in 2014.
If part of your income is comprised of a bonus or overtime, you may not be able to use this, or if you can, you may only be able to use 50% of the money towards what the lender deems as your income.
All income you declare in your mortgage application will need to be provable – usually through you providing your latest pay slips, pensions and benefits statements.
Your regular household expenses, debts and insurances can all affect what a mortgage lender will let you borrow. Outgoings that a lender may take into consideration include:
Some lenders also apply a reduction to the amount you can borrow for the number of children you have (assuming an average monthly expense), while others have started to take things like discretionary spending into account. They'll also require you to prove that you can afford the repayments in the event of an increase to interest rates, so make sure you have suitable means to ensure that – ideally through reducing your unnecessary expenditure – as this could have a clear impact on the amount of mortgage you'll be able to borrow.
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Disclaimer: This information is intended solely to provide guidance and is not financial advice. Moneyfacts will not be liable for any loss arising from your use or reliance on this information. If you are in any doubt, Moneyfacts recommends you obtain independent financial advice.
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